Cytopathology is a specialist discipline that includes diagnosis and screening components. Diagnostic cytology uses non-invasive and minimally invasive techniques to collect cellular material to confirm/exclude malignancy. Specimens examined include sputum, urine, brushings and washings from various organ systems and fine needle aspirates of palpable or radio logically identified lesions.

Cervical Cancer Screening relies upon the Pap smear to identify asymptomatic women with premalignant disease. The interpretation of cervical smears is a non-automated discipline, which has an extensive and varied quality control system in place to monitor and improve standards.